ROM is a non volatile memory. This means that it is a memory device or storage medium that stores information permanently.
The full form of ROM is “Read Only Memory”. I told you about this in the previous article, this is only part of the primary memory of the computer. So a little more reminder that there are two types of memory in a computer, Primary and Secondary, Primary Memory are of two types, one is RAM and the other is ROM.
What is ROM ?
Its full name is Read Only Memory by its name, you must be knowing that we can just read this memory. There is a fixed program in it (or Permanent Memory can say), we cannot change this program easily, as the correct answer is when you buy a computer, there is already a BIOS program in it.
It helps to turn on the system and with this it links BOIS Computer and Operating System.
So this BIOS already resides in the new computer and the memory in which it resides is the name of the ROM and an example is FIRMWARE Software program which is attached to the hardware. And the program that is in Firmware also stays in a Rom Chip.
This memory is also called Non-Volatile Memory. This memory is created only when computers are created. ROMs are not just used in computers or mobiles, we can use them in some other electronic devices as well.
Such as WASHING Machine, Microwave Oven, TV, AC, Lift Vagera. So due to changing technology, ROMs also have different types. We will talk about this further in Types of ROM.
· Characteristics of ROM:-
· Types of ROM
· 1.Masked Read Only Memory
· 2.Programmable Read Only Memory
· 3.Erasable and Programmable Read Only Memory
· 4.Electrically Erasable and Programmable Read Only Memory
· How does ROM work?
· Advantages Of ROM
Characteristics of ROM
Let us now consider the features of ROM.
• ROM is a permanent memory or permanent memory.
• It stores all the basic Functionality instructions of the computer.
• ROMs are readable only. Meaning that only the information in it can be read.
• Talking about the price, ROMs are cheaper than RAM.
• ROM uses very less energy, while they are very reliable.
Types of ROM
There are some Sabbaths in this article like Data, Instruction, Program all means one, do not be confused and one term is “Programmed”. It means that these are very many commands that do a task, like a software does. .
In the same way, here on Computer, the work of doing Computer On is done by a software program, whose name is Firmware which resides in ROM. By the way, there are 4 types of ROM which are given below and their information is also there.
MROM (Masked Read Only Memory)
PROM (Programmable Read-Only Memory)
EPROM (Erasable and Programmable Read-Only Memory)
EEPROM (Electrically Erasable and Programmable Read-Only Memory)
1.Masked Read Only Memory
This is the first ROM, it is not used at all in today’s world. This is Read Only Memory Hard Wired Devices. In which there was a lot of pre-programmed data and Instruction Store. Such memory used to be quite expensive. At that time, MROM will not be available anywhere.
2.Programmable Read Only Memory
This is such a Read Only Memory, which we can change only once. Changing on here means putting some new program in PROM and an update to it is also said. Once updated, no one can update it again.
User Blank PROM is purchased and then the Instruction that wants to be inserted in it can be inserted (Instruction means there are some commands which do some work).
There are small fuses in this memory, in which Instruction is inserted through programming. Once it is programmed, you cannot erase it again.
3.Erasable and Programmable Read Only Memory
There is another type of this ROM, its specialty is that we can also Erase it and can also be programmed again. The way to erase this memory is quite different, in which you pass this memory up to 40 Minute with Ultra Violet Light, then it is empty.
We know a little more in detail, “EPROM Eraser” is also used to achieve this work. While Programming, (Programming means updating or inserting some new program) Charge has to be inserted in it, which is kept for more than 10 years because there is no way to get out of Charge. Therefore, it remains inside that memory.
So to erase this charge (instruction), Ultra Violet Light is passed through Quartz Crystal Window (lid). With the effect of this light, all Charge Erase is more. Here was some information about Erasable and Programmable ROM.
4.Electrically Erasable and Programmable Read Only Memory
Due to change of technology, Read Only Memory also needed to be changed again and again.
Because of this memory was used. Its specialty is that we can Erase and programmed it 10 thousand times and within just 4 to 10 Millisecond we can also Erase and Programmed it.
We can select any location of memory in it and we can Erase and Programmed the same. We do not need to empty the entire Chip. Because of this Advantage, it is an EEPROM pedestal but is slow.
So till now you know what ROM is (what is ROM) and types of ROM in , now you know about its benefits.
How does ROM work?
Whenever we switch on the computer, there is not much difference between your computer and a rock. Meaning both of them have the same computing power.
Therefore, there is something that should be inside your computer that tells him that other hardwares like keyboard, mouse, disk drive are all attached to it.
This is generically called “BIOS” (Basic Input Output System). Even though initially your computer is not so smart, but these BIOS chips that are in the computer help the computer to access all the startup routines that are stored in a disk drive, and that includes RAM. Used for all types of computations.
These BIOS are stored on a ROM chip, otherwise the computer will know how to do it with other hardwares associated.
Like RAM, ROM chips also have grids of columns and rows. But where these columns and rows intersect, they are fundamentally different in these ROM chips compared to RAM chips.
Where RAM uses transistors to turn a capacitor on or off, to access it in intersection, while ROM diode is used to connect these lines if they have a value of 1. The same if their value The lines are not connected at all if they are 0.
For the ROM chip to function correctly, it is very important that its programming be completely perfect and it is also important to have complete data with it when the chip is being created. This is because you cannot reprogram or rewrite a standard ROM chip again.
If something goes wrong or you have to update any data, then you have to change the ROM or make a new one. Therefore, it is very difficult to create the original template of ROM Chip, while a lot of trial and error is done in it.
Advantages Of ROM
So now you know, what are the benefits of ROM, then it would be understandable to understand all the above information.
1. Its nature is Non-Volatile, which keeps the program permanently.
2. Its data does not change automatically, only the data changes by changing it.
3. It is cheaper than RAM.
4. Are more reliable than RAM. Because the data remains in RAM as long as the power supply remains.
5. It is stable and there is no need to refresh it again and again.
6. There is a lot of thinking and putting data in it, which we cannot change again and again.
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