What is a Operating System?
I directly explain this sentence, whenever you run the computer, then this OS gives you the means to use the computer. As you listen to the song, double click on the word document, sit down with three four windows, write something in the keyboard, and save some file in the computer, you can never do all this without operating system.
So this OS is the software with which you run your computer. So whenever you buy a new computer, first of all you load Window 8 or Windows10 in it from the shopkeeper and after that you take the computer to your home. Otherwise without operating system, you can never turn on your computer.
This is also a question, why is it called System Software? If you want to run User Software means Application Software in Computer then they can never run without OS.
This OS helps in using Computer Hardware well. The Operating System mainly does the same thing as takes some input from the keyboard, processes the instruction, and sends the output to the computer screen.
You see this operating system only when you turn the computer on and when you turn off the computer. You live like Game, MS word, Adobe Reader, VLC Media Player, Photoshop and inside a lot of Software Computer. To run these, you need a program or big software which we call Operating System.
The name of the OS used in mobile is Android, which is known by everyone. You must know what is the Operating System, so let’s know about some of its work.
Operating system list
Different operating systems are used for different tasks. Here you have shared the operating system list, which most people like to use.
- Microsoft windows
- Google’s Android OS
- Apple iOS
- Apple macOS
- Linux Operating System
Examples of all these very large operating systems. Although there are not many different people inside them, but most people know them by these names.
Operating system functions
By the way, Computer does a lot of work, but firstly when you turn on the computer, then the Operating System first loads in Main Memory means RAM and after that this User Software allocate all the hardware it needs from the cone. Below are the different functions of OS, know more about them in Detail.
1. Memory Management
Memory Management means managing Primary and Secondary Memory. Main memory means RAM is very large bytes of Array.
- Meaning there are a lot of small blocks in memory where we can store some data. Where there is an address of each slot. Main Memory is the fastest running memory that CPU Direct uses. Because all the programs that run the CPU are in main memory only.
- The Operating System does all this work.
- Which memory of main memory will be used, which will not be, how much will be, how much will not be.
- In multiprocessing, the OS decides which process will be given memory and how much will be given.
- When OS asks for Process Memory then Memory OS gives it to it (Process means a Task or a small task that is done inside the Computer).
- When the process finishes its work, the OS takes back its memory.
2. Processor Management (Process Scheduling)
When it comes to multi programming environment, the OS decides which process will get Processor and which will not be available and for how long.
- This process is called Process Scheduling. The Operating System makes all this work.
- The Operating System also looks at whether the Processor is empty or doing some work, or is free and whether the Process has finished its work. If you want, you can see in the Task Manager how many jobs are going on and how many are not. The program that has done all this work is named Traffic Controller.
- CPU allocate the process.
- When the work of a Process is over, it puts the Processor in other work, and if nothing is done, free the Processor.
3. Device Management
If you use a driver in your computer, then you will know that such as Sound Driver, Bluetooth Driver, Graphics Driver, WiFi Driver, but it helps to run different Input / Output Device, but these drivers OS runs.
So let’s see what this OS does.
- Tracks all computer devices and the name of the program that makes this task is I / O Controller.
- Just as different processes need devices to perform some tasks, the OS also does the work of device Allocate. Take an example, a process has to do some tasks like playing video, not removing print, then both these tasks will be done with the help of Output Device Monitor, printer. So when both of these devices have to deliver the process, it works by the OS.
- When the process is over, it deallocates the device back.
4. File Management
- Organizing all the directories in a file is very much done. Because with this we can easily find the data. So let’s know what is the function of OS in File Management.
- Organizes information, location and status. It sees all file systems.
- Who will get which resource?
- Resource De-allocate.
When you turn on your computer, you ask that password, this means that the OS prevents your system from Unauthenticated Access. This keeps your computer safe. And some programs cannot be opened without a password.
6. Viewing System Performance
It looks at the performance of the computer and improves the system. The OS records how long it takes to deliver a service.
7. Telling Error
If there are a lot of errors in the system, then the OS detects and recovers them.
8. Creating synergy between software and user
- Task assigns compiler, interpreter and assembler. Connects different software to the user, which makes the user use the software better.
- Provides communication between the user and the system.
- The Operating System is stored in the BIOS. The rest of the application also makes user-friendly.
Operating System Features
- An operating system is a collection of many programs, which run other programs.
- It controls all the Input / output Device.
- The operating system is responsible for running all the application software.
- Process scheduling means allocating and deallocate processes.
- Informs you about the errors and threats happening in the system.
- Establishes good synergy between User and Computer Programs.
By now, you all must know what the Operating System does (Function of Operating System in Hindi), so let us now know how many types of OS are there.
Types of Operating System
Technology is changing day by day and everything is changing with it, so the usage of the operating system is increasing in every field like railway, research, satellite, industry, so you know how many types of operating systems are there.
- Batch Operating System
- Simple Batch Operating System
- Multiprogramming Batch Operating System
- Network Operating System
- Multiprocessor Operating System
- Distributed Operating System
- Time-Sharing Operating System
- Real-Time Operating System
1) Batch Processing Operating System
Batch processing operating systems were introduced to remove the problems of earlier era. If we talk about earlier systems, then there was more setup time.
At the same time this much set up time has been reduced in this batch processing systems where jobs are processed in batches. This type of operating system is called batch processing operating system in Hindi.
Any similar jobs in it are submitted to the CPU for processing and they are run simultaneously.
The main function of the Batch Processing System is to execute the jobs automatically in a batch. The most important function in this work is the ‘Batch Monitor’ which is located in the low-end of the main memory.
i) Simple Batch System
This is the oldest system in which there was no direct interaction between the user and the computer. In this system, the user had to bring a storage unit to process a task or job and had to submit it to the computer operator.
In this, all the jobs were given to the computer in a batch or line. Within a few days or a few months, it was a Job Process and an output device had an Output Store. This system used to process jobs in batch, hence its name was also called batch mode operating system.
ii) MultiProgramming Batch Systems
In this operating system, a job was raised too much from memory and it is executed too much. The OS that processes a job, if the same job requires I / O, then the OS gives the second job to the CPU and the first one gets the I / O, because of this the CPU is always busy.
The number of jobs that remain in memory are less than the number of jobs we always have in the disk. If a lot of jobs remain in the line, then the operating system decides which job will be processed first. The CPU in this OS never remains idle.
Time Sharing system is also part of Multiprogramming system. Response time is much less in the Time Sharing System but CPU usage is more in multi programming.
1) No direct interaction between user and computer.
2) The job that comes first is the first process, so the user had to wait more.
2) Network Operating System
Its abbreviation is NOS, the full form of NOS is “Network Operating System”. This network operating system provides its services to computers that are connected to a network.
If they are given an example, then they come in shared file access, shared applications, and printing capabilities.
NOS is a type of software that allows multiple computers to communicate simultaneously, share files and also with other hardware devices.
Earlier Microsoft Windows and Apple operating systems were not designed for a single computer usage and network usage. But as computer networks started to grow slowly and their usage also started to grow, and such operating systems also started developing.
An NOS (Network Operating System in hindi) mainly has two types: –
Peer-to-peer (P2P) OS, which is installed on each computer. The second one is a client-server model, in which there is a machine server and another client software is installed.
Types of Network Operating System
Talking about the type of Network Operating System, there are mainly two basic types, peer-to-peer NOS and client / server NOS:
1. Peer-to-peer network operating systems allow users to share network resources that are saved in a common, accessible network location. In this architecture, all devices are treated equally according to functionality.
Peer-to-peer works best in small to medium LANs, as well as setting them up is very cheap.
2. Client / server network operating systems provide users with access to all resources through a server. In its architecture, all functions and applications are unified under a file server which can be executed by individual client actions, why should it not be in any physical location.
Installing the client / server is very difficult, while it requires a large amount of technical maintenance. Moreover, it also costs more.
Its biggest advantage is that the network is centrally controlled in it, so that any change can be made easily, while additional technology can also be incorporated.
We can show a network operating system on the basis of a basic OS that runs a network device, such as a router or firewall.
3) Multiprocessor System
All the processors used in the multiprocessor system use a common physical memory. Computing power is very fast. All these processors work under an operating system. Here are some of its Advantages
1) Very high speed because Multiprocessor is used.
2) If there are a lot of tasks together, the system throughput increases here. Which means, how many job processes can be done in a second.
3) In this OS, Task is divided into sub Task, and each Sub Task is assigned to different Processor, especially this is why a Task is completed in a very short time.
4) Distributed Operating System
- The only purpose of using Distributed Operating System is that the world has a powerful OS and microprocessor has become very cheap, as well as communication technology is improving.
- Due to this advancement, Distributed OS was now made, which is very cheap and keeps the remote computer through the network. Which in itself is a big achievement.
1) All the resources which are far away can be easily used, which resources are not empty.
2) They are processing fast.
3) Load is less on the host machine, because Load is more than Distribute.
5) Time Sharing Operating System
- In this, some time is provided by the OS to complete each task correctly, so that each task can be completed correctly. At the same time, every user uses a single system, from which the CPU is given time. This type of system is also called Multitasking System.
- At the same time, whatever task is done in it can be either from single user or it can be from multi user as well.
- The amount of time it takes to complete each task is called quantum. At the same time, after completing each task, the OS then starts the next task.
Let us know about the advantages of time-sharing operating system.
In this, the OS is given equal opportunity to complete each task.
It is not easy to have duplicasy of software in it. Which is equal to none.
CPU idle time can be reduced easily.
Let us know about the disadvantages of time-sharing operating system.
- The issue of reliability is seen more in this.
- It takes care of security and integrity of everything.
- The issue of data communication is a common problem in this.
- Examples of time-sharing, operating system are: – Unix
6) Real-Time Operating System
This is the most Advance Operating System, which performs real-time process. This means that while leaving Missile, Railway Ticket Booking, Satellite, all these delays were lost in the water even if a second time, then this Operating System does not remain idle at all.
There are two types of these,
1. Hard Real-Time Operating System
This is the operating system, within which time is given more time to complete the task.
2. Soft Real-Time
In soft real-time, the time limit is a little less, what happens in it if one Task is running and another Task is launched at the same time, then the new Task gets first priority. This was some information about Types of Operating system in Hindi. Before this you have come to know what is Operating System in Hindi.
What is a Client Operating System?
- A computer desktop is a standalone computer processing unit. They are designed to perform automation tasks for people. A desktop computer is very unique because it does not require any networks or external components to operate.
- Most of this client operating system is used in computer desktops or portable devices. This operating system is typically different from centralized servers because it supports only one user.
- Smartphones and small computer devices use a client operating system. This operating system manages the device components, which include printers, monitors, and cameras. Each computer typically has a specific operating system.
- These client operating systems provide multiprocessing power at a very minimal cost. Client Operating System comes under Windows®, Linux®, Mac® and Android®.
- Each operating system is designed to perform some specific function on specific hardware. This hardware compatibility is the most primary consideration, on the basis of which an operating system is selected for client computers.
- For example, in recent times Windows® is the most commonly used client operating systems.