Modern software development heavily utilises the programming paradigm known as object-oriented programming (OOP). One of the most widely used programming languages, Java, is fully object-oriented, which implies it adheres to OOP’s tenets. For any Java developer, having a foundational understanding of object-oriented programming is essential.
Four fundamental ideas—encapsulation, inheritance, polymorphism, and abstraction—form the basis of OOP. Encapsulation is the practise of only exposing the information required through methods or interfaces and hiding the implementation specifics of an object. New classes can be based on existing classes and inherit their properties and methods thanks to inheritance. Depending on the situation, objects can take on several types or shapes thanks to polymorphism. Abstraction is the practise of dividing a system into more manageable, smaller units in order to reduce complexity.
Everything in Java is an object, including simple data types. A class serves as a guide or model for building objects with similar attributes and functions. An object is an instance of a class when it is created. The methods of objects, which are specified in the class, are how they communicate with one another.
Modular programming, which enables the organisation of code into reusable modules that are simple to maintain and update, is one of the benefits of OOP. Code becomes more scalable and error-free as a result. Because objects can be merged to form bigger, more potent systems, OOP also enables the development of more sophisticated systems.
Java has a wide range of OOP-supporting capabilities, such as packages, abstract classes, and interfaces. While abstract classes serve as a starting point for the development of subclasses, interfaces specify a set of methods that a class must implement. Classes and interfaces can be logically grouped together using packages.
Summary: Encapsulation, inheritance, polymorphism, and abstraction are the four fundamental ideas of object-oriented programming in Java. Java developers may create robust and efficient software systems by utilizing these ideas to write modular, scalable, and maintainable code.