Python is an object-oriented programming (OOP) language that enables programmers to group code into manipulatable, reusable objects. Classes, objects, inheritance, and polymorphism are the cornerstones of Python’s OOP paradigm.
In Python, classes serve as the objects’ building blocks. They specify an object’s characteristics and behaviours. While behavior’s are the acts an object is capable of performing, such as moving or computing a value, attributes are the characteristics of an item, such as its colour or size. The class keyword is used to define classes.
The properties defined in classes have specific values in objects, which are instances of the class. They can also carry out the class-defined behaviours. You must first create an instance of the class by invoking the class as though it were a function before you can create an object.
A class’s ability to inherit methods and properties from a parent class is known as inheritance. This enables programmers to reuse code and turn generic classes into specialised ones. By making a new class that derives from an existing class, inheritance is accomplished in Python.
The capacity of an object to assume various forms is known as polymorphism. This is accomplished in Python using method overloading and overriding. Through the use of method overriding, a child class can replace a parent class-defined method with one of its own. Multiple methods with the same name but different parameters are possible thanks to method overloading.
Python additionally provides additional OOP elements like abstraction and encapsulation. Encapsulation is the practise of shielding an object’s internal components from view. Python’s private properties and methods can be used to do this. By concentrating on the most important elements, complicated systems can be made simpler through abstraction. Python uses abstract classes and interfaces to implement abstraction.
Finally, Python’s OOP characteristics let programmers create more structured and reusable code. Using inheritance, polymorphism, classes, and objects, programmers may build sophisticated systems that are simple to manage. Any Python developer who wants to create scalable and maintainable apps must comprehend these ideas.