A key feature of C programming is dynamic memory management, which enables programmers to allocate and deallocate memory at runtime. In C programming, the four procedures malloc(), calloc(), realloc(), and free are used to allocate dynamic memory (). Programmers can use these functions to allocate memory for variables, arrays, and data structures while the programmed is running.
When the size of the data structure is uncertain or is determined during runtime, dynamic memory allocation is crucial. Dynamic memory allocation is accomplished using the malloc() method. It accepts an input specifying how many bytes of memory should be allocated, and it returns a void reference to the allocated memory’s starting address. For the purpose of allocating memory for an array, utilise the calloc() function. It requires two arguments: the array’s total number of elements, and the size of each element. It gives back a void pointer to the beginning location of the memory that was allocated.
The memory block that was previously allocated by the malloc() or calloc() methods can be resized using the realloc() function. It requires two arguments: the pointer to the memory block that was previously allocated and the new size of the memory block. The initial address of the reallocated memory block is returned as a void pointer.
The memory block that was previously allocated by the malloc(), calloc(), or realloc() functions is dealt with using the free() function. The pointer to the memory block that is to be deallocated is the only argument required.
When a programmer neglects to deallocate memory that was previously allocated using the malloc(), calloc(), or realloc() functions, it results in memory leaks. This may cause the programme to crash due to memory exhaustion. Whenever the memory is no longer required, it must be deallocated using the free() function to prevent memory leaks.
Programmers can allocate memory at runtime thanks to C’s sophisticated dynamic memory management capability. It allows for optimal use of memory resources and flexibility in memory management. But, it also needs to be handled carefully to avoid memory leaks and other problems. C programmers can write reliable, effective programmers that are memory-free by making proper use of the memory management capabilities.