Delegates and events are important concepts in C# programming that allow you to create event-driven applications. In this article, we will discuss delegates and events in C# and their usage.
Delegates in C#
A delegate is a type that represents a method signature. It is used to define a reference to a method and allows methods to be passed as parameters to other methods or stored as variables. Delegates are similar to function pointers in C or C++.
To declare a delegate in C#, you use the “delegate” keyword followed by the signature of the method that the delegate will reference. Here’s an example:
delegate int Calculate(int x, int y);
In the above example, we declare a delegate called “Calculate” that takes two integers as parameters and returns an integer.
You can use a delegate to create a reference to a method and then invoke that method through the delegate. Here’s an example:
public class Calculator
public int Add(int x, int y)
return x + y;
Calculate calculatorDelegate = new Calculate(new Calculator().Add);
int result = calculatorDelegate(3, 4); // returns 7
In the above example, we create a delegate called “calculatorDelegate” that references the “Add” method of the “Calculator” class. We then use the delegate to invoke the method and get the result.
Events in C#
An event is a way for an object to notify other objects when something happens. It allows objects to communicate with each other without knowing about each other’s implementation details. Events are typically used in GUI programming, where the user interacts with the user interface and the application responds to those actions.
To declare an event in C#, you use the “event” keyword followed by the delegate type that will handle the event. Here’s an example:
public class Button
public event EventHandler Clicked;
protected virtual void OnClicked()
In the above example, we declare an event called “Clicked” that uses the “EventHandler” delegate type. We also define a method called “OnClicked” that will be used to invoke the event.
You can subscribe to an event by creating a method that matches the signature of the delegate and then adding that method to the event using the “+=” operator. Here’s an example:
public class Form
Button button = new Button();
button.Clicked += Button_Clicked;
private void Button_Clicked(object sender, EventArgs e)
In the above example, we create a form and a button. We then subscribe to the “Clicked” event of the button by creating a method called “Button_Clicked” that matches the signature of the “EventHandler” delegate and adding that method to the event using the “+=” operator.
Delegates and events are powerful concepts in C# programming that allow you to create event-driven applications. Delegates are used to define a reference to a method and allow methods to be passed as parameters to other methods or stored as variables. Events are used to notify other objects when something happens and allow objects to communicate with each other without knowing about each other’s implementation details. Understanding delegates and events is important for writing applications that respond to user actions and events.