Operating systems, embedded systems, and server-side applications can all be created using the C programming language. Yet, because of its low level and dearth of built-in security protections, C programming is equally susceptible to security assaults. We’ll talk about typical security flaws in C programming in this article, along with solutions.
A buffer overflow happens when a software writes data outside the buffer’s boundaries, corrupting memory and perhaps enabling an attacker to run arbitrary code. Use safe string functions that restrict the amount of bytes written to a buffer, such as strncpy() and strncat(), to prevent buffer overflows.
When a software tries to save a value that is too large for the data type, an integer overflow occurs. This results in unexpected behaviour and may allow an attacker to run arbitrary code. Use data types appropriate for the range of numbers being stored and check for overflow circumstances in your code to prevent integer overflows.
Format string vulnerabilities:
When a software utilises a user-controlled string as a format string in a printf() or scanf() function, there is a format string vulnerability that could allow an attacker to run arbitrary code. Use the proper format specifiers and stay away from utilising user-controlled strings as format strings to prevent format string vulnerabilities.
When a programme fails to release dynamically allocated memory, the programme gradually uses up more and more memory, which is known as a memory leak. Make sure to release dynamically allocated memory when it is no longer required to prevent memory leaks.
Variables that have not been initialised may exhibit unexpected behaviour or even permit arbitrary code to be executed by an attacker. You should never use uninitialized variables in your code and should always initialise variables when they are declared.
Insecure input handling:
Buffer overflows, integer overflows, and format string vulnerabilities can result from insecure input handling. Use safe input functions, such fgets(), that have a limit on the number of bytes read, and check user input at all times to prevent handling user input insecurely.
Use of unsafe functions:
Many of the functions used in C programming, such as gets() and strcpy, are intrinsically dangerous (). Use safe substitutes that restrict the amount of data written to a buffer, like fgets() and strncpy(), to avoid using these hazardous functions.
As a result of its low level and dearth of built-in security protections, C programming is susceptible to a variety of security assaults. Use safe coding techniques, such as employing safe string functions, avoiding integer overflows and format string vulnerabilities, and managing user input appropriately, to prevent common security flaws in C programming. You may create powerful, secure C applications that are resistant to security assaults by adhering to these best practises.